A bill allowing the United States to prosecute anyone involved in doping at international events has been signed into law by US president Donald Trump.
The Rodchenkov Anti-Doping Act – named after Russian whistleblower Grigory Rodchenkov – targets coaches, agents and officials, rather than athletes.
Offenders could be jailed for 10 years.
“Dopers should be on clear notice: there is a new sheriff in town, so cheat at your own peril,” a statement from Rodchenkov read.
Those who are found guilty could be fined up to $1m (£745,000) as well as a prison sentence.
The bill was passed unopposed by the US Senate in November.
It does not apply to US professional and college sports, as existing United States Anti-Doping Agency laws cover any offences.
The law has been criticised by the World Anti-Doping Agency, which previously said it was concerned the legislation would “disrupt the global legal anti-doping framework”.
“We hope that other countries will join us in this fight by adopting their own anti-doping laws and partnering with the US on cross-border law enforcement cooperation to protect the rights of clean athletes everywhere,” Rodchenkov’s statement added.